Getting started

  1. How KO works and what benefits it brings
  2. Downloading and installing


  1. Creating view models with observables
  2. Working with observable arrays

Computed observables

  1. Using computed observables
  2. Writable computed observables
  3. How dependency tracking works
  4. Pure computed observables
  5. Reference


Controlling text and appearance

  1. The visible and hidden bindings
  2. The text binding
  3. The html binding
  4. The class and css bindings
  5. The style binding
  6. The attr binding

Control flow

  1. The foreach binding
  2. The if and ifnot bindings
  3. The with and using bindings
  4. The let binding
  5. The component binding
  6. Binding lifecycle events

Working with form fields

  1. The click binding
  2. The event binding
  3. The submit binding
  4. The enable and disable bindings
  5. The value binding
  6. The textInput binding
  7. The hasFocus binding
  8. The checked binding
  9. The options binding
  10. The selectedOptions binding
  11. The uniqueName binding

Rendering templates

  1. The template binding

Binding syntax

  1. The data-bind syntax
  2. The binding context

Creating custom bindings

  1. Creating custom bindings
  2. Controlling descendant bindings
  3. Supporting virtual elements
  4. Custom disposal logic
  5. Preprocessing: Extending the binding syntax


  1. Overview: What components and custom elements offer
  2. Defining and registering components
  3. The component binding
  4. Using custom elements
  5. Advanced: Custom component loaders

Further techniques

  1. Loading and saving JSON data
  2. Extending observables
  3. Deferred updates
  4. Rate-limiting observables
  5. Unobtrusive event handling
  6. Using fn to add custom functions
  7. Microtasks
  8. Asynchronous error handling


  1. The mapping plugin

More information

  1. Browser support
  2. Getting help
  3. Links to tutorials & examples
  4. Usage with AMD using RequireJs (Asynchronous Module Definition)

The data-bind syntax

Knockout’s declarative binding system provides a concise and powerful way to link data to the UI. It’s generally easy and obvious to bind to simple data properties or to use a single binding. For more complex bindings, it helps to better understand the behavior and syntax of Knockout’s binding system.

Binding syntax

A binding consists of two items, the binding name and value, separated by a colon. Here is an example of a single, simple binding:

Today's message is: <span data-bind="text: myMessage"></span>

An element can include multiple bindings (related or unrelated), with each binding separated by a comma. Here are some examples:

<!-- related bindings: valueUpdate is a parameter for value -->
Your value: <input data-bind="value: someValue, valueUpdate: 'afterkeydown'" />

<!-- unrelated bindings -->
Cellphone: <input data-bind="value: cellphoneNumber, enable: hasCellphone" />

The binding name should generally match a registered binding (either built-in or custom) or be a parameter for another binding. If the name matches neither of those, Knockout will ignore it (without any error or warning). So if a binding doesn’t appear to work, first check that the name is correct.

Binding values

The binding value can be a single value, variable, or literal or almost any valid JavaScript expression. Here are examples of various binding values:

<!-- variable (usually a property of the current view model -->
<div data-bind="visible: shouldShowMessage">...</div>

<!-- comparison and conditional, template literals -->
The item is <span data-bind="text: price() > 50 ? `expensive` : `cheap`"></span>.

<!-- function call and comparison -->
<button data-bind="enable: parseAreaCode(cellphoneNumber()) != '555'">...</button>

<!-- function expression -->
<div data-bind="click: function (data) { myFunction('param1', data) }">...</div>

<!-- object literal (with unquoted and quoted property names) -->
<div data-bind="with: {emotion: 'happy', 'facial-expression': 'smile'}">...</div>

These examples show that the value can be just about any JavaScript expression. Even the comma is fine when it’s enclosed in braces, brackets, or parentheses. When the value is an object literal, the object’s property names must be valid JavaScript identifiers or be enclosed in quotes. If the binding value is an invalid expression or references an unknown variable, Knockout will output an error and stop processing bindings.


Bindings can include any amount of whitespace (spaces, tab, and newlines), so you’re free to use it to arrange your bindings as you like. The following examples are all equivalent:

<!-- no spaces -->
<select data-bind="options:availableCountries,optionsText:'countryName',value:selectedCountry,optionsCaption:'Choose...'"></select>

<!-- some spaces -->
<select data-bind="options : availableCountries, optionsText : 'countryName', value : selectedCountry, optionsCaption : 'Choose...'"></select>

<!-- spaces and newlines -->
<select data-bind="
    options: availableCountries,
    optionsText: 'countryName',
    value: selectedCountry,
    optionsCaption: 'Choose...'"></select>


Bindings can include JavaScript-style comments (//... and /*...*/). For example:

<select data-bind="
    options: availableCountries,  // Only list countries that are available
    optionsText: 'countryName',
    /* optionsValue: 'countryId',
    value: selectedCountry, */    // These two bindings are not processed
    optionsCaption: 'Choose...'"></select>

Skipping the binding value

If you specify bindings without a value, Knockout will give the binding an undefined value. For example:

<span data-bind="text">Text that will be cleared when bindings are applied.</span>

This ability is especially useful when paired with binding preprocessing, which can assign a default value for a binding.