Getting started

  1. How KO works and what benefits it brings
  2. Downloading and installing


  1. Creating view models with observables
  2. Working with observable arrays

Computed observables

  1. Using computed observables
  2. Writable computed observables
  3. How dependency tracking works
  4. Pure computed observables
  5. Reference


Controlling text and appearance

  1. The visible binding
  2. The text binding
  3. The html binding
  4. The css binding
  5. The style binding
  6. The attr binding

Control flow

  1. The foreach binding
  2. The if binding
  3. The ifnot binding
  4. The with binding
  5. The component binding

Working with form fields

  1. The click binding
  2. The event binding
  3. The submit binding
  4. The enable binding
  5. The disable binding
  6. The value binding
  7. The textInput binding
  8. The hasFocus binding
  9. The checked binding
  10. The options binding
  11. The selectedOptions binding
  12. The uniqueName binding

Rendering templates

  1. The template binding

Binding syntax

  1. The data-bind syntax
  2. The binding context

Creating custom bindings

  1. Creating custom bindings
  2. Controlling descendant bindings
  3. Supporting virtual elements
  4. Custom disposal logic
  5. Preprocessing: Extending the binding syntax


  1. Overview: What components and custom elements offer
  2. Defining and registering components
  3. The component binding
  4. Using custom elements
  5. Advanced: Custom component loaders

Further techniques

  1. Loading and saving JSON data
  2. Extending observables
  3. Deferred updates
  4. Rate-limiting observables
  5. Unobtrusive event handling
  6. Using fn to add custom functions
  7. Microtasks
  8. Asynchronous error handling


  1. The mapping plugin

More information

  1. Browser support
  2. Getting help
  3. Links to tutorials & examples
  4. Usage with AMD using RequireJs (Asynchronous Module Definition)

The "with" binding


The with binding creates a new binding context, so that descendant elements are bound in the context of a specified object.

Of course, you can arbitrarily nest with bindings along with the other control-flow bindings such as if and foreach.

Example 1

Here is a very basic example of switching the binding context to a child object. Notice that in the data-bind attributes, it is not necessary to prefix latitude or longitude with coords., because the binding context is switched to coords.

<h1 data-bind="text: city"> </h1>
<p data-bind="with: coords">
    Latitude: <span data-bind="text: latitude"> </span>,
    Longitude: <span data-bind="text: longitude"> </span>

<script type="text/javascript">
        city: "London",
        coords: {
            latitude:  51.5001524,
            longitude: -0.1262362

Example 2

This interactive example demonstrates that:

  • The with binding will dynamically add or remove descendant elements depending on whether the associated value is null/undefined or not
  • If you want to access data/functions from parent binding contexts, you can use special context properties such as $parent and $root.

Try it out:

Twitter account:

Recent tweets fetched at

Source code: View

<form data-bind="submit: getTweets">
    Twitter account:
    <input data-bind="value: twitterName" />
    <button type="submit">Get tweets</button>

<div data-bind="with: resultData">
    <h3>Recent tweets fetched at <span data-bind="text: retrievalDate"> </span></h3>
    <ol data-bind="foreach: topTweets">
        <li data-bind="text: text"></li>

    <button data-bind="click: $parent.clearResults">Clear tweets</button>

Source code: View model

function AppViewModel() {
    var self = this;
    self.twitterName = ko.observable('@example');
    self.resultData = ko.observable(); // No initial value

    self.getTweets = function() {
        var name = self.twitterName(),
            simulatedResults = [
                { text: name + ' What a nice day.' },
                { text: name + ' Building some cool apps.' },
                { text: name + ' Just saw a famous celebrity eating lard. Yum.' }

        self.resultData({ retrievalDate: new Date(), topTweets: simulatedResults });

    self.clearResults = function() {

ko.applyBindings(new AppViewModel());


  • Main parameter

    The object that you want to use as the context for binding descendant elements.

    If the expression you supply evaluates to null or undefined, descendant elements will not be bound at all, but will instead be removed from the document.

    If the expression you supply involves any observable values, the expression will be re-evaluated whenever any of those observables change. Then, descendant elements will be cleared out, and a new copy of the markup will be added to your document and bound in the context of the new evaluation result.

  • Additional parameters

    • None

Note 1: Using “with” without a container element

Just like other control flow elements such as if and foreach, you can use with without any container element to host it. This is useful if you need to use with in a place where it would not be legal to introduce a new container element just to hold the with binding. See the documentation for if or foreach for more details.


    <li>Header element</li>
    <!-- ko with: outboundFlight -->
    <!-- /ko -->
    <!-- ko with: inboundFlight -->
    <!-- /ko -->

The <!-- ko --> and <!-- /ko --> comments act as start/end markers, defining a “virtual element” that contains the markup inside. Knockout understands this virtual element syntax and binds as if you had a real container element.


None, other than the core Knockout library.