Getting started

  1. How KO works and what benefits it brings
  2. Downloading and installing


  1. Creating view models with observables
  2. Working with observable arrays

Computed observables

  1. Using computed observables
  2. Writable computed observables
  3. How dependency tracking works
  4. Pure computed observables
  5. Reference


Controlling text and appearance

  1. The visible and hidden bindings
  2. The text binding
  3. The html binding
  4. The class and css bindings
  5. The style binding
  6. The attr binding

Control flow

  1. The foreach binding
  2. The if and ifnot bindings
  3. The with and using bindings
  4. The let binding
  5. The component binding
  6. Binding lifecycle events

Working with form fields

  1. The click binding
  2. The event binding
  3. The submit binding
  4. The enable and disable bindings
  5. The value binding
  6. The textInput binding
  7. The hasFocus binding
  8. The checked binding
  9. The options binding
  10. The selectedOptions binding
  11. The uniqueName binding

Rendering templates

  1. The template binding

Binding syntax

  1. The data-bind syntax
  2. The binding context

Creating custom bindings

  1. Creating custom bindings
  2. Controlling descendant bindings
  3. Supporting virtual elements
  4. Custom disposal logic
  5. Preprocessing: Extending the binding syntax


  1. Overview: What components and custom elements offer
  2. Defining and registering components
  3. The component binding
  4. Using custom elements
  5. Advanced: Custom component loaders

Further techniques

  1. Loading and saving JSON data
  2. Extending observables
  3. Deferred updates
  4. Rate-limiting observables
  5. Unobtrusive event handling
  6. Using fn to add custom functions
  7. Microtasks
  8. Asynchronous error handling


  1. The mapping plugin

More information

  1. Browser support
  2. Getting help
  3. Links to tutorials & examples
  4. Usage with AMD using RequireJs (Asynchronous Module Definition)

Custom elements

Custom elements provide a convenient way of injecting components into your views.


Custom elements are a syntactical alternative to the component binding (and in fact, custom elements make use of a component binding behind the scenes).

For example, instead of writing this:

<div data-bind='component: { name: "flight-deals", params: { from: "lhr", to: "sfo" } }'></div>

… you can write:

<flight-deals params='from: "lhr", to: "sfo"'></flight-deals>

This allows for a very modern, WebComponents-like way to organize your code, while retaining support for even very old browsers (see custom elements and IE 6 to 8).


This example declares a component, and then injects two instances of it into a view. See the source code below.

First instance, without parameters

Second instance, passing parameters

Source code: View

    <h4>First instance, without parameters</h4>

    <h4>Second instance, passing parameters</h4>
    <message-editor params='initialText: "Hello, world!"'></message-editor>

Source code: View model

    ko.components.register('message-editor', {
        viewModel: function(params) {
            this.text = ko.observable(params.initialText || '');
        template: 'Message: <input data-bind="value: text" /> '
                + '(length: <span data-bind="text: text().length"></span>)'


Note: In more realistic cases, you would typically load component viewmodels and templates from external files, instead of hardcoding them into the registration. See an example and registration documentation.

Passing parameters

As you have seen in the examples above, you can use a params attribute to supply parameters to the component viewmodel. The contents of the params attribute are interpreted like a JavaScript object literal (just like a data-bind attribute), so you can pass arbitrary values of any type. Example:

    params='stringValue: "hello",
            numericValue: 123,
            boolValue: true,
            objectValue: { a: 1, b: 2 },
            dateValue: new Date(),
            someModelProperty: myModelValue,
            observableSubproperty: someObservable().subprop'>

Communication between parent and child components

If you refer to model properties in a params attribute, then you are of course referring to the properties on the viewmodel outside the component (the ‘parent’ or ‘host’ viewmodel), since the component itself is not instantiated yet. In the above example, myModelValue would be a property on the parent viewmodel, and would be received by the child component viewmodel’s constructor as params.someModelProperty.

This is how you can pass properties from a parent viewmodel to a child component. If the properties themselves are observable, then the parent viewmodel will be able to observe and react to any new values inserted into them by the child component.

Passing observable expressions

In the following example,

    params='simpleExpression: 1 + 1,
            simpleObservable: myObservable,
            observableExpression: myObservable() + 1'>

… the component viewmodel’s params parameter will contain three values:

  • simpleExpression
    • This will be the numeric value 2. It will not be an observable or computed value, since there are no observables involved.

      In general, if a parameter’s evaluation does not involve evaluating an observable (in this case, the value did not involve observables at all), then the value is passed literally. If the value was an object, then the child component could mutate it, but since it’s not observable the parent would not know the child had done so.

  • simpleObservable
    • This will be the ko.observable instance declared on the parent viewmodel as myObservable. It is not a wrapper — it’s the actual same instance as referenced by the parent. So if the child viewmodel writes to this observable, the parent viewmodel will receive that change.

      In general, if a parameter’s evaluation does not involve evaluating an observable (in this case, the observable was simply passed without evaluating it), then the value is passed literally.

  • observableExpression
    • This one is trickier. The expression itself, when evaluated, reads an observable. That observable’s value could change over time, so the expression result could change over time.

      To ensure that the child component can react to changes in the expression value, Knockout automatically upgrades this parameter to a computed property. So, the child component will be able to read params.observableExpression() to get the current value, or use params.observableExpression.subscribe(...), etc.

      In general, with custom elements, if a parameter’s evaluation involves evaluating an observable, then Knockout automatically constructs a ko.computed value to give the expression’s result, and supplies that to the component.

In summary, the general rule is:

  1. If a parameter’s evaluation does not involve evaluating an observable/computed, it is passed literally.
  2. If a parameter’s evaluation does involve evaluating one or more observables/computeds, it is passed as a computed property so that you can react to changes in the parameter value.

Passing markup into components

Sometimes you may want to create a component that receives markup and uses it as part of its output. For example, you may want to build a “container” UI element such as a grid, list, dialog, or tab set that can receive and bind arbitrary markup inside itself.

Consider a special list component that can be invoked as follows:

<my-special-list params="items: someArrayOfPeople">
    <!-- Look, I'm putting markup inside a custom element -->
    The person <em data-bind="text: name"></em>
    is <em data-bind="text: age"></em> years old.

By default, the DOM nodes inside <my-special-list> will be stripped out (without being bound to any viewmodel) and replaced by the component’s output. However, those DOM nodes aren’t lost: they are remembered, and are supplied to the component in two ways:

  • As an array, $componentTemplateNodes, available to any binding expression in the component’s template (i.e., as a binding context property). Usually this is the most convenient way to use the supplied markup. See the example below.
  • As an array, componentInfo.templateNodes, passed to its createViewModel function

The component can then choose to use the supplied DOM nodes as part of its output however it wishes, such as by using template: { nodes: $componentTemplateNodes } on any element in the component’s template.

For example, the my-special-list component’s template can reference $componentTemplateNodes so that its output includes the supplied markup. Here’s the complete working example:

The person is years old.

Source code: View

    <!-- This could be in a separate file -->
    <template id="my-special-list-template">
        <h3>Here is a special list</h3>

        <ul data-bind="foreach: { data: myItems, as: 'myItem' }">
                <h4>Here is another one of my special items</h4>
                <!-- ko template: { nodes: $componentTemplateNodes, data: myItem } --><!-- /ko -->

    <my-special-list params="items: someArrayOfPeople">
        <!-- Look, I'm putting markup inside a custom element -->
        The person <em data-bind="text: name"></em>
        is <em data-bind="text: age"></em> years old.

Source code: View model

    ko.components.register('my-special-list', {
        template: { element: 'my-special-list-template' },
        viewModel: function(params) {
            this.myItems = params.items;

        someArrayOfPeople: ko.observableArray([
            { name: 'Lewis', age: 56 },
            { name: 'Hathaway', age: 34 }

This “special list” example does nothing more than insert a heading above each list item. But the same technique can be used to create sophisticated grids, dialogs, tab sets, and so on, since all that is needed for such UI elements is common UI markup (e.g., to define the grid or dialog’s heading and borders) wrapped around arbitrary supplied markup.

This technique is also possible when using components without custom elements, i.e., passing markup when using the component binding directly.

Controlling custom element tag names

By default, Knockout assumes that your custom element tag names correspond exactly to the names of components registered using ko.components.register. This convention-over-configuration strategy is ideal for most applications.

If you want to have different custom element tag names, you can override getComponentNameForNode to control this. For example,

ko.components.getComponentNameForNode = function(node) {
    var tagNameLower = node.tagName && node.tagName.toLowerCase();

    if (ko.components.isRegistered(tagNameLower)) {
        // If the element's name exactly matches a preregistered
        // component, use that component
        return tagNameLower;
    } else if (tagNameLower === "special-element") {
        // For the element <special-element>, use the component
        // "MySpecialComponent" (whether or not it was preregistered)
        return "MySpecialComponent";
    } else {
        // Treat anything else as not representing a component
        return null;

You can use this technique if, for example, you want to control which subset of registered components may be used as custom elements.

Registering custom elements

If you are using the default component loader, and hence are registering your components using ko.components.register, then there is nothing extra you need to do. Components registered this way are immediately available for use as custom elements.

If you have implemented a custom component loader, and are not using ko.components.register, then you need to tell Knockout about any element names you wish to use as custom elements. To do this, simply call ko.components.register - you don’t need to specify any configuration, since your custom component loader won’t be using the configuration anyway. For example,

ko.components.register('my-custom-element', { /* No config needed */ });

Alternatively, you can override getComponentNameForNode to control dynamically which elements map to which component names, independently of preregistration.

Note: Combining custom elements with regular bindings

A custom element can have a regular data-bind attribute (in addition to any params attribute) if needed. For example,

<products-list params='category: chosenCategory'
               data-bind='visible: shouldShowProducts'>

However, it does not make sense to use bindings that would modify the element’s contents, such as the text or template bindings, since they would overwrite the template injected by your component.

Knockout will prevent the use of any bindings that use controlsDescendantBindings, because this also would clash with the component when trying to bind its viewmodel to the injected template. Therefore if you want to use a control flow binding such as if or foreach, then you must wrap it around your custom element rather than using it directly on the custom element, e.g.,:

<!-- ko if: someCondition -->
<!-- /ko -->


<ul data-bind='foreach: allProducts'>
    <product-details params='product: $data'></product-details>

Note: Custom elements cannot be self-closing

You must write <my-custom-element></my-custom-element>, and not <my-custom-element />. Otherwise, your custom element is not closed and subsequent elements will be parsed as child elements.

This is a limitation of the HTML specification and is outside the scope of what Knockout can control. HTML parsers, following the HTML specification, ignore any self-closing slashes (except on a small number of special “foreign elements”, which are hardcoded into the parser). HTML is not the same as XML.

Note: Custom elements and Internet Explorer 6 to 8

Knockout tries hard to spare developers the pain of dealing with cross-browser compatiblity issues, especially those relating to older browsers! Even though custom elements provide a very modern style of web development, they still work on all commonly-encountered browsers:

  • HTML5-era browsers, which includes Internet Explorer 9 and later, automatically allow for custom elements with no difficulties.
  • Internet Explorer 6 to 8 also supports custom elements, but only if they are registered before the HTML parser encounters any of those elements.

IE 6-8’s HTML parser will discard any unrecognized elements. To ensure it doesn’t throw out your custom elements, you must do one of the following:

  • Ensure you call ko.components.register('your-component') before the HTML parser sees any <your-component> elements
  • Or, at least call document.createElement('your-component') before the HTML parser sees any <your-component> elements. You can ignore the result of the createElement call — all that matters is that you have called it.

For example, if you structure your page like this, then everything will be OK:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <script src='some-script-that-registers-components.js'></script>


If you’re working with AMD, then you might prefer a structure like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
            // Since the components aren't registered until the AMD module
            // loads, which is asynchronous, the following prevents IE6-8's
            // parser from discarding the custom element

        <script src='require.js' data-main='app/startup'></script>


Or if you really don’t like the hackiness of the document.createElement call, then you could use a component binding for your top-level component instead of a custom element. As long as all other components are registered before your ko.applyBindings call, they can be used as custom elements on IE6-8 without futher trouble:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <!-- The startup module registers all other KO components before calling
             ko.applyBindings(), so they are OK as custom elements on IE6-8 -->
        <script src='require.js' data-main='app/startup'></script>

        <div data-bind='component: "my-custom-element"'></div>

Advanced: Accessing $raw parameters

Consider the following unusual case, in which useObservable1, observable1, and observable2 are all observables:

    params='myExpr: useObservable1() ? observable1 : observable2'>

Since evaluating myExpr involves reading an observable (useObservable1), KO will supply the parameter to the component as a computed property.

However, the value of the computed property is itself an observable. This would seem to lead to an awkward scenario, where reading its current value would involve double-unwrapping (i.e., params.myExpr()(), where the first parentheses give the value of the expression, and the second give the value of the resulting observable instance).

This double-unwrapping would be ugly, inconvenient, and unexpected, so Knockout automatically sets up the generated computed property (params.myExpr) to unwrap its value for you. That is, the component can read params.myExpr() to get the value of whichever observable has been selected (observable1 or observable2), without the need for double-unwrapping.

In the unlikely event that you don’t want the automatic unwrapping, because you want to access the observable1/observable2 instances directly, you can read values from params.$raw. For example,

function MyComponentViewModel(params) {
    var currentObservableInstance = params.$raw.myExpr();
    // Now currentObservableInstance is either observable1 or observable2
    // and you would read its value with "currentObservableInstance()"

This should be a very unusual scenario, so normally you will not need to work with $raw.